A few candidates, including Blanqui (who had been arrested when outside Paris, and was in prison in Brittany), won in several arrondissements. In der Schlacht bei Buzenval schlug der Kronprinz von Preußen die Attacke aus dem Fort am Mont Valérien mühelos zurück. La Commune de Paris constitue une expérience révolutionnaire sur laquelle il existe une multitude de publications, militantes ou non. COMMUNE DE PARIS .1871. The Council accepted his decision, and Vinoy gave orders for the operation to begin the next day.[27]. It existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists had taken place, and it is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution. Gould, Roger V. "Multiple networks and mobilization in the Paris Commune, 1871. The Commune counts on you, count on the Commune![72]. More than half of the prisoners, 22,727 to be exact, were released before trial for extenuating circumstances or on humanitarian grounds. The International had considerable influence even among unaffiliated French workers, particularly in Paris and the large cities. Indeed, the Commune's vision of a communal France based on a federation of delegates bound by imperative mandates issued by their electors and subject to recall at any moment echoed Bakunin's and Proudhon's ideas (Proudhon, like Bakunin, had argued in favour of the 'implementation of the binding mandate' in 1848...and for federation of communes). Thiers insisted that the planned operation must go ahead as quickly as possible, to have the element of surprise. The publications La Commune, La Justice and Valles' Le Cri du Peuple feared that a more authoritarian government would destroy the kind of social republic they wanted to achieve. Soon, the Council of the Commune voted, with strong opposition, for the creation of a Committee of Public Safety, modelled on the eponymous Committee that carried out the Reign of Terror (1793–94). . [118] However, it has been argued in recent research that these famous female arsonists of the Commune, or pétroleuses, may have been exaggerated or a myth. [50] Cole, Nicki Lisa, Ph.D. "What You Need to Know About the Paris Commune of 1871." This was approved by Thiers, who felt that to negotiate a future peace treaty the Germans were demanding war reparations of five billion francs; the gold reserves would be needed to keep the franc stable and pay the indemnity. General Cissey resumed the intense bombardment of the fort. At this period in time, Paris had a considerable population of workers—as many as half a million industrial workers and hundreds of thousands of others—who were economically and politically oppressed by the ruling government and the system of capitalist production, and economically disadvantaged by the war. However, Thiers and the National Assembly did not accept his proposals. On the morning of 22 May, the regular army occupied a large area from the Porte Dauphine; to the Champs-de-Mars and the École Militaire, where general Cissey established his headquarters; to the Porte de Vanves. On 5 October, 5,000 protesters marched from Belleville to the Hotel de Ville, demanding immediate municipal elections and rifles. Teaser Autumn Winter 2015. With Eliane Annie Adalto, Pierre Barbieux, Bernard Bombeau, Maylis Bouffartigue. [85], During the course of the 25th the insurgents lost the city hall of the 13th arrondissement and moved to a barricade on Place Jeanne-d'Arc, where 700 were taken prisoner. He was particularly hated by the national guardsmen of Montmartre and Belleville because of the severe discipline he imposed during the siege of Paris. The report assessed information about Communard casualties only as "very incomplete". [10] This discontent can be traced to the first worker uprisings, the Canut revolts, in Lyon and Paris in the 1830s[11] (a canut was a Lyonnais silk worker, often working on Jacquard looms). Amer. The Prussian army marched swiftly toward Paris. In Paris, however, the republican candidates dominated, winning 234,000 votes against 77,000 for the Bonapartists. Those arrested included General Edmond-Charles de Martimprey, the governor of the Invalides, alleged to have caused the assassination of revolutionaries in December 1851—as well as more recent commanders of the National Guard, including Gustave Cluseret. The first to take action were the followers of Blanqui, who went quickly to the Latin Quarter and took charge of the gunpowder stored in the Pantheon, and to the Orleans railway station. [18], Blanqui, the leader of the most radical faction, established his own headquarters at the nearby Prefecture of the Seine, issuing orders and decrees to his followers, intent upon establishing his own government. [80], At two in the morning on 24 May, Brunel and his men went to the Hotel de Ville, which was still the headquarters of the Commune and of its chief executive, Delescluze. [4] Jacques Rougerie, who had earlier accepted the 20,000 figure, wrote in 2014, "the number ten thousand victims seems today the most plausible; it remains an enormous number for the time. The National Guard had not been disarmed as per the armistice, and had on paper 260 battalions of 1,500 men each, a total of 390,000 men. On 26 January, they signed a ceasefire and armistice, with special conditions for Paris. Under the decree, any person accused of complicity with the Versailles government could be immediately arrested, imprisoned and tried by a special jury of accusation. [114] Reportedly, Michel told the court, "Since it seems that every heart that beats for freedom has no right to anything but a little slug of lead, I demand my share. It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular, and highly democratic social democracy. The house was emptied and destroyed on 12 May.[58]. Republican and radical deputies of the National Assembly went to the Hôtel de Ville, proclaimed the new French R… Between the end of April and 20 May, the number of trained artillerymen fell from 5,445 to 2,340. Everyday life for Parisians became increasingly difficult during the siege. Dombrowski held this position until 23 May, when he was killed while defending the city barricades.[66]. [29] Earlier that day, dressed in civilian clothes, he had been trying to find out what was going on, when he was recognized by a soldier and arrested, and brought to the building at Rue des Rosiers. The Communards advocated for the establishment of Communes in other cities in France. At the beginning of April, he moved to Brussels to take care of the family of his son, who had just died. Others were taken to the main barracks of the army in Paris and after summary trials, were executed there. VIMEO. Introduction de Friedrich Engels Livre en pdf Livre pour tablettes (format epub) La Commune de Paris. Le 28 mars 1871, dix jours après le début de leur insurrection, les parisiens proclament la Commune de Paris place de l’Hotel de ville. The split between the Marxists and anarchists at the 1872 Hague Congress of the First International (IWA) may in part be traced to Marx's stance that the Commune might have saved itself had it dealt more harshly with reactionaries, instituted conscription, and centralised decision-making in the hands of a revolutionary direction. Believing that their struggle against patriarchy[citation needed] could only be pursued through a global struggle against capitalism, the association demanded gender and wage equality, the right of divorce for women, the right to secular education, and professional education for girls. YOOX exklusive Produkte italienischer und internationaler Designer – Sichere Zahlung – Kostenlose Rückgabe The webs of narrow streets that made entire districts nearly impregnable in earlier Parisian revolutions had in the centre been replaced by wide boulevards during Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Fifteen thousand demonstrators, some of them armed, gathered in front of the Hôtel de Ville in pouring rain, calling for the resignation of Trochu and the proclamation of a commune. Die Kreationen von Commune De Paris 1871 online shoppen. The old society has twenty years of peace before it..."[104], On 23 April, George Sand, an ardent republican who had taken part in the 1848 revolution, wrote "The horrible adventure continues. General Vinoy, the commander of the Paris Military District, had ordered any prisoners who were deserters from the Army to be shot. A sympathetic station manager hid him in his office and helped him board a train, and he escaped the city. COMMUNE DE PARIS 1871 180 views. Thus, Nathalie Lemel, a socialist bookbinder, and Élisabeth Dmitrieff, a young Russian exile and member of the Russian section of the First International, created the Women's Union for the Defence of Paris and Care of the Wounded on 11 April 1871. The rest of the Louvre was saved by the efforts of the museum curators and fire brigades. On 2 September 1870, France was defeated at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War, and Emperor Napoleon III was captured. I am suffocated. Four battalions crossed the Seine and captured the prefecture of police, while other units occupied the former headquarters of the National Guard at the Place Vendôme, as well as the Ministry of Justice. In addition to the native French population, there were about 100,000 immigrant workers and political refugees, the largest number being from Italy and Poland. [34] Between 15 and 24 February, some 500 delegates elected by the National Guard began meeting in Paris. He reported to the Government that there was no alternative to negotiating an armistice. Shop Marx and Engels, Bakunin, and later Lenin, tried to draw major theoretical lessons (in particular as regards the "dictatorship of the proletariat" and the "withering away of the state") from the limited experience of the Commune. The sight of the ruins is nothing compared to the great Parisian insanity. Quand? MacMahon replied, "Ah, well, that's different. In the years of the Soviet Union, the spaceflight Voskhod 1 carried part of a Communard banner. [18], On 3 November, city authorities organized a plebiscite of Parisian voters, asking if they had confidence in the Government of National Defence. They also wanted a more "just" way of managing the economy, if not necessarily socialist, summed up in the popular appeal for "la république démocratique et sociale!" There were also 115,000 servants and 45,000 concierges. Émile Zola wrote, "Thus we citizens of Paris are placed between two terrible laws; the law of suspects brought back by the Commune and the law on rapid executions which will certainly be approved by the Assembly. Arriving at an open yard, they were lined up against a wall and shot in groups of ten. La Commune de Paris, au jour le jour, 1871, 19 mars-28 mai Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Because Paris was under siege for four months, the Third Republic moved its capital to Tours. Ahead of the elections, the Central Committee and the leaders of the International gave out their lists of candidates, mostly belonging to the extreme left. The policy of holding hostages for possible reprisals was denounced by some defenders of the Commune, including Victor Hugo, in a poem entitled "No Reprisals" published in Brussels on 21 April. [129] A plaque and a church, Notre-Dame-des-Otages [fr] (Our Lady of the Hostages) on rue Haxo mark the place where fifty hostages, including priests, gendarmes and four civilians, were shot by a firing squad.[130]. On 2 April, soon after the Commune was established, it voted a decree accusing the Catholic Church of "complicity in the crimes of the monarchy." The editors wrote, "We are against the National Assembly, but we are not for the Commune. "[103] He became the most vocal advocate of an amnesty for exiled Communards, finally granted in the 1880s. The Versailles government, in turn, imposed strict censorship and prohibited any publication in favour of the Commune. Seeing the more radical political direction of the new Commune, Tirard and some twenty republicans decided it was wisest to resign from the Commune. In early 1867, Parisian employers of bronze-workers attempted to de-unionise their workers. The siege ended with the surrender of the French army to the Prussians and the signing of an armistice to end the fighting of the Franco-Prussian War. Clavier and Gois took them instead to Rue Haxo. Clemenceau tried to negotiate a compromise between the Commune and the government, but neither side trusted him; he was considered extremely radical by the provincial deputies of rural France, but too moderate by the leaders of the Commune. With very rare exceptions, everybody seemed to me only fit for the strait-jacket. [citation needed], Socialist movements, such as the First International, had been growing in influence with hundreds of societies affiliated to it across France. On 20 May, MacMahon's artillery batteries at Montretout, Mont-Valerian, Boulogne, Issy, and Vanves opened fire on the western neighbourhoods of the city—Auteuil, Passy, and the Trocadero—with shells falling close to l'Étoile.